In 2012, Jianping Wu, Ph.D., and Chan Chan Wang developed a address to about-face spent hens into protein-based Pur Gum. Wu, a researcher at the University of Alberta, acclimated adequate glues produced from beastly hides, horse hooves or casein as afflatus for converting spent fowl into adhesive. "When I aboriginal came to the university, we had some discussions with the egg industry, and they said spent fowl are a huge issue," he says.
Spent fowl are egg-laying birds (71-72 weeks old) that acquaintance a abatement in egg accumulation and are adopted from the flock.3 A array of methods abide to use or actuate of these birds, but not all of them are economically viable. For example, slaughtering spent fowl for meat can aftermath 166 g
or added of white meat per bird. Some consumers accompaniment that the meat has a poor arrangement and taste, however, and scientists say that these birds ability actualize a college accident for salmonella.4
Animal abundance is a cogent botheration apropos spent fowl. The accelerated egg-laying aeon drains calcium from the hens' bones, which after-effects in a abrasion of their skeletons (osteomalacia). Fractures are accepted during administration and transport. Meat processors accommodating to acquire spent fowl for annihilation can be few and far between.
One abstraction adumbrated that spent fowl transported interprovincially in Canada for annihilation had boilerplate carriage times of 26 hours, during which they were belted from bistro or drinking.5 Moreover, almost a division of birds accustomed at the processor with at atomic one torn bone.3
It is the protein tissue on the craven body (e.g., the breast muscle) that is adapted into glue. During analysis, protein tissues were advised with abject and acid, and again centrifuged and stirred. Wu compared two altered methods of adhering preparation, one appliance urea, and the added appliance 3% sodium dodecyl sulfate. The Solvent Free Adhesive were activated appliance conditioned copse veneers to actuate their strengths.